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Bacterial Community Affects Toxin Production by Gymnodinium catenatum

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dc.contributor Australian Institute Of Marine Science
dc.contributor Univ Tasmania
dc.contributor Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organisation (csiro)
dc.contributor Commonwealth Sci & Ind Res Org
dc.contributor University Of Tasmania
dc.contributor Australian Inst Marine Sci
dc.contributor Natl Ctr Marine Conservat & Resource Sustainabil
dc.contributor Australian Maritime Coll BOLCH, CHRISTOPHER J. S. ALBINSSON, MARIA E. NEGRI, ANDREW P. BLACKBURN, SUSAN I. 2014-09-24T01:27:29Z 2014-09-24T01:27:29Z 2017-03-21T01:09:10Z 2019-05-09T01:16:25Z 2017-03-21T01:09:10Z 2017-03-21T01:09:10Z 2014-09-24T01:27:29Z 2019-05-09T01:16:25Z 2014-08-12
dc.identifier.citation Albinsson ME, Negri AP, Blackburn SI, Bolch CJS (2014) Bacterial community affects toxin production by Gymnodinium catenatum. PLoS ONE 9(8): e104623. en_US
dc.identifier.issn 1932-6203
dc.description.abstract The paralytic shellfish toxin (PST)-producing dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum grows in association with a complex marine bacterial community that is both essential for growth and can alter culture growth dynamics. Using a bacterial community replacement approach, we examined the intracellular PST content, production rate, and profile of G. catenatum cultures grown with bacterial communities of differing complexity and composition. Clonal offspring were established from surface-sterilized resting cysts (produced by sexual crosses of strain GCDE06 and strain GCLV01) and grown with: 1) complex bacterial communities derived from each of the two parent cultures; 2) simplified bacterial communities composed of the G. catenatum-associated bacteria Marinobacter sp. strain DG879 or Alcanivorax sp. strain DG881; 3) a complex bacterial community associated with an untreated, unsterilized sexual cross of the parents. Toxin content (STX-equivalent per cell) of clonal offspring (134-197 fmol STX cell(-1)) was similar to the parent cultures (169-206 fmol STX cell(-1)), however cultures grown with single bacterial types contained less toxin (134-146 fmol STX cell(-1)) than offspring or parent cultures grown with more complex mixed bacterial communities (152-176 fmol STX cell(-1)). Specific toxin production rate (fmol STX day(-1)) was strongly correlated with culture growth rate. Net toxin production rate (fmol STX cell(-1) day(-1)) did not differ among treatments, however, mean net toxin production rate of offspring was 8-fold lower than the parent cultures, suggesting that completion of the sexual lifecycle in laboratory cultures leads to reduced toxin production. The PST profiles of offspring cultures were most similar to parent GCDE06 with the exception of cultures grown with Marinobacter sp. DG879 which produced higher proportions of dcGTX2+3 and GC1+2, and lower proportions of C1+2 and C3+4. Our data demonstrate that the bacterial community can alter intracellular STX production of dinoflagellates. In G. catenatum the mechanism appears likely to be due to bacterial effects on dinoflagellate physiology rather than bacterial biotransformation of PST toxins.
dc.description.sponsorship This research was sponsored by the Aquafin CRC Project 4.2(2). A whole-of-ecosystem assessment of environmental issues for salmonid aquaculture. M. E. Albinsson was supported by an Australian Postgraduate Scholarship - The Thomas Crawford Memorial Scholarship while doing this research. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
dc.description.uri en_US
dc.language English
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher PLoS one en_US
dc.relation.ispartof Null
dc.rights Attribution 3.0 Australia *
dc.rights.uri *
dc.subject Fluorescence Detection
dc.subject Paralytic Shellfish Toxins
dc.subject Science & Technology - Other Topics
dc.subject Gene-cluster
dc.subject Growth
dc.subject Dinoflagellate Alexandrium-fundyense
dc.subject Multidisciplinary Sciences
dc.subject Dinophyceae
dc.subject Saxitoxin Biosynthesis
dc.subject Toxicity
dc.subject Liquid-chromatography
dc.subject Cell-cycle
dc.title Bacterial Community Affects Toxin Production by Gymnodinium catenatum
dc.type journal article en_US
dc.identifier.doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0104623
dc.identifier.wos WOS:000341230400060

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