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Sediment tolerance mechanisms identified in sponges using advanced imaging techniques

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dc.contributor Australian Institute Of Marine Science
dc.contributor Western Australian Marine Sci Inst
dc.contributor Australian Ctr Ecogenom
dc.contributor Ctr Microscopy Characterisat & Anal
dc.contributor Sch Agr & Environm
dc.contributor Sch Biol Sci
dc.contributor University Of Western Australia
dc.contributor Univ Western Australia
dc.contributor University Of Queensland
dc.contributor Univ Queensland
dc.contributor Australian Inst Marine Sci
dc.contributor Oceans Inst CLODE, PETA L. STREHLOW, BRIAN W. PINEDA, MARI-CARMEN DUCKWORTH, ALAN KENDRICK, GARY A. RENTON, MICHAEL WAHAB, MUHAMMAD AZMI ABDUL WEBSTER, NICOLE S. 2018-01-07T18:50:17Z 2018-01-07T18:50:17Z 2018-11-01T03:12:20Z 2018-01-07T18:50:17Z 2018-01-07T18:50:17Z 2018-11-01T03:12:20Z 2017-11-16
dc.identifier.citation Strehlow BW, Pineda MC, Duckworth A, Kendrick GA, Renton M, Abdul Wahab MA, Webster NS, Clode PL (2017) Sediment tolerance mechanisms identified in sponges using advanced imaging techniques. PeerJ 5: e3904
dc.identifier.issn 2167-8359
dc.description.abstract Terrestrial runoff, resuspension events and dredging can affect filter-feeding sponges by elevating the concentration of suspended sediments, reducing light intensity, and smothering sponges with sediments. To investigate how sponges respond to pressures associated with increased sediment loads, the abundant and widely distributed Indo-Pacific species lanthella basta was exposed to elevated suspended sediment concentrations, sediment deposition, and light attenuation for 48 h (acute exposure) and 4 weeks (chronic exposure). In order to visualise the response mechanisms, sponge tissue was examined by 3D X-ray microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Acute exposures resulted in sediment rapidly accumulating in the aquiferous system of I. basta, although this sediment was fully removed within three days. Sediment removal took longer (>2 weeks) following chronic exposures, and I. basta also exhibited tissue regression and a smaller aquiferous system. The application of advanced imaging approaches revealed that I. basta employs a multilevel system for sediment rejection and elimination, containing both active and passive components. Sponges responded to sediment stress through (i) mucus production, (ii) exclusion of particles by incurrent pores, (iii) closure of oscula and pumping cessation, (iv) expulsion of particles from the aquiferous system, and (v) tissue regression to reduce the volume of the aquiferous system, thereby entering a dormant state. These mechanisms would result in tolerance and resilience to exposure to variable and high sediment loads associated with both anthropogenic impacts like dredging programs and natural pressures like flood events.
dc.description.sponsorship This research was funded by the Western Australian Marine Science Institution (WAMSI) as part of the WAMSI Dredging Science Node, and made possible through investment from Chevron Australia, Woodside Energy Limited, BHP Billiton as environmental offsets and by co-investment from the WAMSI Joint Venture partners. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and not necessarily those of WAMSI. Nicole S. Webster was funded by an Australian Research Council Future Fellowship FT120100480. Brian W. Strehlow was supported by a University of Western Australia (UWA) Scholarship for International Research Fees, University International Stipend, and UWA Safety-Net Top-Up Scholarships. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
dc.language English
dc.subject Size
dc.subject Scanning Electron Microscopy
dc.subject Science & Technology - Other Topics
dc.subject Corals
dc.subject Impacts
dc.subject Ianthella-basta
dc.subject Multidisciplinary Sciences
dc.subject Australia
dc.subject Marine Sponges
dc.subject Physiology
dc.subject Sediments
dc.subject Porifera
dc.subject Demospongiae
dc.subject Aquiferous Systems
dc.subject Sponge
dc.subject 3d X-ray Microscopy
dc.title Sediment tolerance mechanisms identified in sponges using advanced imaging techniques
dc.type journal article
dc.identifier.doi 10.7717/peerj.3904
dc.identifier.wos WOS:000415382700008

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