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Tropical and Sub-Tropical Coral Reefs. Chapter 43

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dc.contributor.author Wilkinson, Clive (CR)
dc.contributor.author Salvat, Bernard (B)
dc.contributor.author Eakin, C Mark (CM)
dc.contributor.author Brathwaite, Angelique (A)
dc.contributor.author Francini-Filho, Ronaldo (R)
dc.contributor.author Webster, Nicole (NS)
dc.contributor.author Padovani Ferreira, Beatrice (B)
dc.contributor.author Harris, Peter (PT)
dc.date.accessioned 2016-09-21T05:46:16Z
dc.date.accessioned 2017-03-21T01:07:42Z
dc.date.accessioned 2020-07-20T00:46:26Z
dc.date.available 2016-09-21T05:46:16Z
dc.date.available 2017-03-21T01:07:42Z
dc.date.available 2020-07-20T00:46:26Z
dc.date.issued 2016-04
dc.identifier.citation Wilkinson C, Salvat B, Eakin CM, Brathwaite A, Francini-Filho R, Webster N, Padovani Ferreira B, Harris P (2016) Chapter 43. Tropical and Sub-Tropical Coral Reefs. (42 pp) In: First Global Integrated Marine Assessment (First World Ocean Assessment). UN General Assembly. United Nations. en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://epubs.aims.gov.au/11068/13023
dc.description The First Global Integrated Marine Assessment - World Ocean Assessment 1 by the Group of Experts of the Regular Process under the auspices of the United Nations General Assembly and its Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment, including Socioeconomic Aspects. en_US
dc.description.abstract The world's tropical coral reefs are exposed to all categories of anthropogenic pressures exerted on the oceans, including fishing, pollution, sedimentation, oil and gas extraction, and climate change; these pressures make reefs an important integrated indicator of ocean health within the tropics. Tropical coral reefs cover an estimated area of 275,000 km2 with an additional 600,000 km2 of sandy lagoons; they occur in 79 countries and reef-associated fisheries are a primary food source and basis for many cultures for an estimated 275 million people. Reef-related tourism is valued at USD$11.5 billion/year and reef fisheries generate an additional USD$6.8 billion/year. However, reefs have become so degraded in 20 per cent of their area (55,000 km2) that they no longer support fisheries or tourism and show no prospects of recovery; 35 per cent of the remaining coral reefs are under imminent risk of degradation. The worst-affected coral reef areas are in the wider Caribbean and Southeast Asia. In addition to the above threats, climate change is resulting in increased sea-surface temperatures, which cause corals to "bleach" through the expulsion of their symbiotic algae. These heat-stressed coral colonies often die, especially those exposed to additional pressures like pollution. In addition, ocean acidification reduces the ability of corals to calcify, threatening the very structure of coral reefs. Protection from anthropogenic impacts increases resilience of coral reefs to resist climate-associated stress. Only 6 per cent of coral reefs are adequately protected within marine reserves. Unless reefs are able to adapt to anthropogenic global warming and ocean acidification in the short term, it is predicted from climate-change scenarios that most of the world's coral reefs, especially those in shallow waters, will see annual bleaching by mid-century and these systems will become functionally extinct as sources of ecosystem services by that time. en_US
dc.description.uri http://www.un.org/depts/los/global_reporting/WOA_RegProcess.htm en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher United Nations en_US
dc.relation.ispartof The First Global Integrated Marine Assessment - World Ocean Assessment 1 en_US
dc.title Tropical and Sub-Tropical Coral Reefs. Chapter 43 en_US
dc.type book chapter en_US


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