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Ecoengineering with Ecohydrology: Successes and failures in estuarine restoration

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dc.contributor Australian Institute Of Marine Science
dc.contributor South African Institute For Aquatic Biodiversity
dc.contributor Murdoch Univ
dc.contributor Murdoch University
dc.contributor Inst Estuarine & Coastal Studies
dc.contributor South African Inst Aquat Biodivers
dc.contributor James Cook Univ
dc.contributor James Cook University
dc.contributor Univ Washington
dc.contributor University Of Washington
dc.contributor Tropwater
dc.contributor Ctr Fish & Fisheries Res
dc.contributor University Of Washington Seattle
dc.contributor Univ Hull
dc.contributor National Research Foundation - South Africa
dc.contributor Coll Marine & Environm Sci
dc.contributor Australian Inst Marine Sci
dc.contributor University Of Hull
dc.contributor Sch Aquat & Fishery Sci WOLANSKI, ERIC ELLIOTT, MICHAEL MANDER, LUCAS MAZIK, KRYSIA SIMENSTAD, CHARLES VALESINI, FIONA WHITFIELD, ALAN 2017-01-13T00:46:19Z 2017-01-13T00:46:19Z 2017-03-21T01:05:02Z 2019-05-09T01:13:22Z 2017-03-21T01:05:02Z 2017-03-21T01:05:02Z 2017-01-13T00:46:19Z 2019-05-09T01:13:22Z 2016-07-05
dc.identifier.citation Elliott M, Mander L, Mazik K, Simenstad C, Valesini F, Whitfield A, Wolanski E (2016) Ecoengineering with Ecohydrology: Successes and failures in estuarine restoration. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 175: 12-35 en_US
dc.identifier.issn 0272-7714
dc.description.abstract Ecological Engineering (or Ecoengineering) is increasingly used in estuaries to re-create and restore ecosystems degraded by human activities, including reduced water flow or land poldered for agricultural use. Here we focus on ecosystem recolonization by the biota and their functioning and we separate Type A Ecoengineering where the physico-chemical structure is modified on the basis that ecological structure and functioning will then follow, and Type B Ecoengineering where the biota are engineered directly such as through restocking or replanting. Modifying the physical system to create and restore natural processes and habitats relies on successfully applying Ecohydrology, where suitable physical conditions, especially hydrography and sedimentology, are created to recover estuarine ecology by natural or human-mediated colonisation of primary producers and consumers, or habitat creation. This successional process then allows wading birds and fish to reoccupy the rehabilitated areas, thus restoring the natural food web and recreating nursery areas for aquatic biota. We describe Ecohydrology principles applied during Ecoengineering restoration projects in Europe, Australia, Asia, South Africa and North America. These show some successful and sustainable approaches but also others that were less than successful and not sustainable despite the best of intentions (and which may even have harmed the ecology). Some schemes may be 'good for the ecologists', as conservationists consider it successful that at least some habitat was created, albeit in the short-term, but arguably did little for the overall ecology of the area in space or time. We indicate the trade-offs between the short- and long-term value of restored and created ecosystems, the success at developing natural structure and functioning in disturbed estuaries, the role of this in estuarine and wetland management, and the costs and benefits of Ecoengineering to the socio-ecological system. These global case studies provide important lessons for both the science and management of estuaries, including that successful estuarine restoration is a complex and often difficult process, and that Ecoengineering with Ecohydrology aims to control and/or simulate natural ecosystem processes. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
dc.description.sponsorship The National Research Foundation (NRF) of South Africa is thanked for providing funding for the professional compilation of the Richard's Bay figures. Shona Thomson (IECS) is thanked for the Humber Map. We also thank two anonymous referees for their valuable and enthusiastic comments.
dc.description.uri en_US
dc.language English
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Elsevier en_US
dc.relation.ispartof Null
dc.subject Managed Realignment
dc.subject Ecoengineering
dc.subject Eutrophic Estuary
dc.subject Large Woody Debris
dc.subject Large Microtidal Estuary
dc.subject St-lucia
dc.subject Marine Biodiversity
dc.subject Landscape Allometry
dc.subject Marine & Freshwater Biology
dc.subject Estuarine Processes
dc.subject Estuarine
dc.subject Oceanography
dc.subject Ecohydrology
dc.subject Ecological Functions
dc.subject Habitat Restoration
dc.subject Ecosystem Services
dc.subject Beach Nourishment
dc.title Ecoengineering with Ecohydrology: Successes and failures in estuarine restoration
dc.type journal article en_US
dc.identifier.doi 10.1016/j.ecss.2016.04.003
dc.identifier.wos WOS:000378759000002

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