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The 2014-2017 global-scale coral bleaching event: insights and impacts

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dc.contributor Noaa
dc.contributor Australian Institute Of Marine Science
dc.contributor Long Term Monitoring Program
dc.contributor Australian Inst Marine Sci
dc.contributor Red Sea Project
dc.contributor National Oceanic Atmospheric Admin (noaa) - Usa
dc.contributor Coral Reef Watch
dc.contributor Red Sea Dev Co BRAINARD, RUSSEL E. EAKIN, C. MARK SWEATMAN, HUGH P. A. 2019-08-25T18:37:03Z 2019-08-25T18:37:03Z 2019-10-21T21:28:39Z 2019-08-25T18:37:03Z 2019-08-25T18:37:03Z 2019-10-21T21:28:39Z 2019-08-01
dc.identifier.citation Eakin CM, Sweatman HPA, Brainard RE (2019) The 2014-2017 global-scale coral bleaching event: insights and impacts. Coral Reefs 38(4): 539-545
dc.identifier.issn 0722-4028
dc.description.abstract 2014-2017 was an unprecedented period of successive record-breaking hot years, which coincided with the most severe, widespread, and longest-lasting global-scale coral bleaching event ever recorded. The 2014-2017 global-scale coral bleaching event (GCBE) resulted in very high coral mortality on many reefs, rapid deterioration of reef structures, and far-reaching environmental impacts. Through the papers in this special issue of Coral Reefs entitled The 2014-2017 Global Coral Bleaching Event: Drivers, Impacts, and Lessons Learned, as well as papers published elsewhere, we have a good analysis of the 2014-2017 GCBE and its impacts. These studies have provided key insights into how climate change-driven marine heatwaves are destroying coral reef ecosystems: (a) The 2014-2017 GCBE is unique in the satellite record in its spatial scale, duration, intensity, and repetition of bleaching. (b) The impacts have been the most severe ever seen at many reefs. (c) Timing of observations matters and needs to be considered during the analysis of impacts. (d) On both global and local scales, the intensity of heat stress and impacts varied. (e) We continue to see important differences among and within coral taxa, with key roles played by algal symbionts and the microbiome. (f) Heat stress and bleaching both play a role in subsequent disease, which plays a key role in mortality. (g) Impacts ripple far beyond corals, with significant changes to the fish and invertebrate community that may last decades. (h) The structure of both individual coral's skeletons and entire reefs has been eroded much more quickly than previously realized. (i) The 2014-2017 GCBE provided little support for the proposed "lifeboat" hypothesis, whereby deep or mesophotic reefs serve as a means of coral reef salvation. (j) While marine protected areas (MPAs) provide protection from local stressors, they not only do not protect reefs from global-scale stressors, but also here is also little evidence they provide significant resilience.
dc.description.sponsorship The reinvigorated Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network is initiating preparation of the next Status of Coral Reefs of the World for 2020-after a 12-yr hiatus since its 2008 report (Wilkinson 2008). This report will most likely include regional- and national-scale assessments of recent bleaching events. In the meantime, it was clear that action was needed to begin assessing the impacts and identifying key lessons from the 2014-2017 Global Coral Bleaching Event. This special issue, The 2014-2017 Global Coral Bleaching Event: Drivers, Impacts, and Lessons Learned, is the result of that call. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Coral Reef Watch was supported by funding through the NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program and Ocean Remote Sensing Program. The scientific results and conclusions, as well as any views or opinions expressed herein, are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of NOAA or the Department of Commerce. On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
dc.language English
dc.subject El Nino
dc.subject Coral Reef Watch
dc.subject Coral Bleaching
dc.subject Coraltemp
dc.subject Heat Stress
dc.subject Shifts
dc.subject Recovery
dc.subject Climate-change
dc.subject Symbionts
dc.subject Marine Heatwave
dc.subject Coral Disease
dc.subject Future
dc.subject Microbiome
dc.subject Enso
dc.subject Reefs
dc.subject Marine & Freshwater Biology
dc.title The 2014-2017 global-scale coral bleaching event: insights and impacts
dc.type journal article
dc.identifier.doi 10.1007/s00338-019-01844-2
dc.identifier.wos WOS:000479051100001

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