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Global change and coral reefs: Impacts on reefs, economies and human cultures

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dc.contributor Australian Inst Marine Sci
dc.contributor Australian Institute Of Marine Science
dc.contributor Australian Institute Of Marine Science (aims) en WILKINSON, CR 2017-03-21T01:24:38Z 2013-02-28T06:51:47Z 2013-02-28T06:51:47Z 2020-09-02T03:44:52Z 2017-03-21T01:24:38Z 2013-02-28T06:51:47Z 2013-02-28T06:51:47Z 2020-09-02T03:44:52Z 1996-12-01
dc.identifier 3059 en
dc.identifier.citation Wilkinson CR (1996) Global change and coral reefs: impacts on reefs, economies and human cultures. Global Change Biology. 2: 547-558. en
dc.identifier.issn 1354-1013
dc.description.abstract Coral reefs have reconstituted themselves after previous large sea-level variations, and climate changes. For the past 6000 years of unusually stable sea-level, reefs have grown without serious interruptions. During recent decades, however, new stresses threaten localized devastation of many reefs. A new period of global climate change is occurring, stimulated by anthropogenic increases in greenhouse gases. Coral reefs will cope well with predicted sea-level rises of 4.5 cm per decade, but reef islands will not. Higher sea levels will provide corals with greater room for growth across reef flats, but there are no foreseeable mechanisms for reef island growth to keep pace with sea-level rise, therefore many low islands may ultimately become uninhabitable. Climate change will introduce localized variations in weather patterns, but changes to individual reefs cannot be predicted. Reefs on average should cope well with regional climate change, as they have coped with similar previous fluctuations. Air temperature increases of 0.2-0.3 degrees C/decade will induce slower increases in sea-surface temperatures, which may cause localized, or regional increases in coral bleaching. Changes in rainfall will impact on reefs near land masses. Likewise, increased storms and variations in El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) may stress some reefs, but not others. The greatest impact of climate change will be a synergistic enhancement of direct anthropogenic stresses (excessive sediment and pollution from the land; over-fishing, especially via destructive methods; mining of coral rock and sand; and engineering modifications), which currently cause most damage to coral reefs. Many of the world's reefs have been degraded and more will be damaged as anthropogenic impacts increase under the 'demophoric' increases in population (demos) and economic (phoric) activity. This biotic and habitat loss will result in severe economic and social losses. Reefs, however, have considerable recovery powers and losses can be minimized by effective management of direct human impacts and reducing indirect threats of global climate change.
dc.language English
dc.language en en
dc.relation.ispartof Null
dc.relation.ispartof Global Change Biology - pages: 2: 547-558 en
dc.subject Economies
dc.subject Ecology
dc.subject Fisheries
dc.subject Global Change
dc.subject Biodiversity & Conservation
dc.subject Diversity
dc.subject Biodiversity
dc.subject Biodiversity Conservation
dc.subject Pollution
dc.subject Tourism
dc.subject Environmental Sciences & Ecology
dc.subject Climate
dc.subject History
dc.subject Coral Reefs
dc.subject Environmental Sciences
dc.subject Sea-level Record
dc.subject Phase-shifts
dc.title Global change and coral reefs: Impacts on reefs, economies and human cultures
dc.type journal article en
dc.identifier.wos WOS:A1996VY32400005

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