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Metamorphosis of a scleractinian coral in response to microbial biofilms

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dc.contributor Australian Institute Of Marine Science
dc.contributor Ctr Marine Biotechnol
dc.contributor University System Of Maryland
dc.contributor University Of Queensland
dc.contributor University Of Maryland Baltimore
dc.contributor Univ Maryland
dc.contributor Univ Queensland
dc.contributor Australian Inst Marine Sci
dc.contributor Australian Institute Of Marine Science (aims) en NEGRI, AP WEBSTER, NS SMITH, LD HEYWARD, AJ WATTS, JEM WEBB, RI BLACKALL, LL 2013-02-28T06:52:52Z 2013-02-28T06:52:52Z 2017-03-21T01:20:53Z 2019-07-08T02:11:46Z 2013-02-28T06:52:52Z 2013-02-28T06:52:52Z 2017-03-21T01:20:53Z 2019-07-08T02:11:46Z 2004-02-01
dc.identifier 6594 en
dc.identifier.citation Webster NS, Smith LD, Heyward AJ, Watts JEM, Webb RI, Blackall LL and Negri AP (2004) Metamorphosis of a scleractinian coral in response to microbial biofilms. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 70: 1213-1221. en
dc.identifier.issn 0099-2240
dc.description.abstract Microorganisms have been reported to induce settlement and metamorphosis in a wide range of marine invertebrate species. However, the primary cue reported for metamorphosis of coral larvae is calcareous coralline algae (CCA). Herein we report the community structure of developing coral reef biofilms and the potential role they play in triggering the metamorphosis of a scleractinian coral. Two-week-old biofilms induced metamorphosis in less than 10% of larvae, whereas metamorphosis increased significantly on older biofilms, with a maximum of 41% occurring on 8-week-old microbial films. There was a significant influence of depth in 4- and 8-week biofilms, with greater levels of metamorphosis occurring in response to shallow-water communities. Importantly, larvae were found to settle and metamorphose in response to microbial biofilms lacking CCA from both shallow and deep treatments, indicating that microorganisms not associated with CCA may play a significant role in coral metamorphosis. A polyphasic approach consisting of scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealed that coral reef biofilms were comprised of complex bacterial and microalgal communities which were distinct at each depth and time. Principal-component analysis of FISH data showed that the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium of Bacteroidetes had the largest influence on overall community composition. A low abundance of Archaea was detected in almost all biofilms, providing the first report of Archaea associated with coral reef biofilms. No differences in the relative densities of each subdivision of Proteobacteria were observed between slides that induced larval metamorphosis and those that did not. Comparative cluster analysis of bacterial DGGE patterns also revealed that there were clear age and depth distinctions in biofilm community structure; however, no difference was detected in banding profiles between biofilms which induced larval metamorphosis and those where no metamorphosis occurred. This investigation demonstrates that complex microbial communities can induce coral metamorphosis in the absence of CCA.
dc.language English
dc.language en en
dc.relation.ispartof Applied and Environmental Microbiology - pages: 70: 1213-1221 en
dc.relation.ispartof Null
dc.relation.uri en
dc.subject Marine Invertebrate Larvae
dc.subject Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology
dc.subject Algae
dc.subject Microbiology
dc.subject In-situ Detection
dc.subject Polychaete Hydroids-elegans
dc.subject Tasmanian Waters
dc.subject Induction
dc.subject Settlement
dc.subject Recruitment
dc.subject Gram-positive Bacteria
dc.subject Dna G+c Content
dc.title Metamorphosis of a scleractinian coral in response to microbial biofilms
dc.type journal article en
dc.identifier.doi 10.1128/AEM.70.2.1213-1221.2004
dc.identifier.wos WOS:000188854900072

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