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Bacillus insecticides are not acutely harmful to corals and sponges

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dc.contributor Australian Institute Of Marine Science
dc.contributor Australian Inst Marine Sci
dc.contributor Australian Institute Of Marine Science (aims) en
dc.contributor.author WEBSTER, NICOLE S.
dc.contributor.author NEGRI, ANDREW P.
dc.contributor.author SOO, ROCHELLE M.
dc.contributor.author FLORES, FLORITA
dc.date.accessioned 2013-02-28T06:47:41Z
dc.date.accessioned 2013-02-28T06:47:41Z
dc.date.accessioned 2017-03-21T01:15:36Z
dc.date.accessioned 2019-05-09T01:11:28Z
dc.date.available 2013-02-28T06:47:41Z
dc.date.available 2013-02-28T06:47:41Z
dc.date.available 2017-03-21T01:15:36Z
dc.date.available 2019-05-09T01:11:28Z
dc.date.issued 2009-01-01
dc.identifier 7992 en
dc.identifier.citation Negri AP, Soo R, Flores F and Webster NS (2009) Bacillus insecticides are not acutely harmful to corals and sponges. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 381: 157-165. en
dc.identifier.issn 0171-8630
dc.identifier.uri http://epubs.aims.gov.au/11068/7992
dc.description Link to abstract/full text - http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/meps07933 en
dc.description.abstract Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive bacterium that produces crystalline endotoxins and is widely considered an environmentally safe insecticide to control mosquitoes and a number of agriculture pests. Bacteria closely related to B. thuringiensis have recently been discovered in association with diseased sponges, which has raised concerns that Bacillus insecticides may be harmful to tropical marine invertebrates. We exposed coral larvae and juvenile corals to the insecticides VectoBac (R) G (containing B. thuringiensis israelensis) and VectoLex (R) G (containing B. sphaericus). VectoBac G and VectoLex G had no effect on the survival and metamorphosis of Acropora millepora and A, tenuis larvae at very high concentrations (5000 mu g 1(-1)). The juvenile corals of the same species were also unaffected after 4 sequential 48 h exposures to B. thuringiensis israelensis and B. sphaericus at different stages of development. Adult corals (A. millepora) and sponges (Ianthella basta) were exposed to a single 6 h pulse of 1000 mu g 1(-1) VectoBac G. Although B. thuringiensis israelensis was detected in the seawater using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, it was not detected in association with the corals or sponges. No evidence of coral or sponge disease was observed during the following 2 wk. These results indicate that insecticides containing endotoxin-producing Bacillus spp. are unlikely to be acutely pathogenic to corals and sponges. However, the effect on most tropical marine invertebrates remain untested and the risks of seed populations of alien Bacillus becoming established on reefs and horizontal transfer of toxin genes to native bacteria also need to be addressed.
dc.description.sponsorship This research was conducted with the support of funding from the Australian Government's Marine and Tropical Sciences Research Facility and the Australian Institute of Marine Science. We thank Darren Alserngeest from the Townsville City Council for providing the VectoBaco G and VectoLexo G samples and Kay Marshall from the Queensland Institute of Medical Research for providing advice on raising Ochlerotatus vigilax larvae. We also thank Eneour Puill-Stephan and Adrian Lutz for their help in the field, Rose Cobb for laboratory assistance and Craig Humphrey for editing advice.
dc.description.uri http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/meps07933 en
dc.language English
dc.language en en
dc.relation.ispartof Marine Ecology Progress Series - pages: 381: 157-165 en
dc.relation.ispartof Null
dc.subject Coral
dc.subject Israelensis
dc.subject Thuringiensis
dc.subject Ecology
dc.subject Pesticide
dc.subject Larvae
dc.subject Rhopaloeides-odorabile
dc.subject Pathogen
dc.subject Pollution
dc.subject Alpha-proteobacterium
dc.subject Environmental Sciences & Ecology
dc.subject Toxicity
dc.subject Insecticide
dc.subject Marine & Freshwater Biology
dc.subject Community
dc.subject Oceanography
dc.subject Disease
dc.subject Sponge
dc.subject Bacillus
dc.title Bacillus insecticides are not acutely harmful to corals and sponges
dc.type journal article en
dc.identifier.doi 10.3354/meps07933
dc.identifier.wos WOS:000266150000013


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