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The coral reef crisis: The critical importance of < 350 ppm CO2

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dc.contributor Australian Inst Marine Sci
dc.contributor Univ E Anglia
dc.contributor Cordio E Africa
dc.contributor University Of Warwick
dc.contributor Nature Conservancy
dc.contributor Univ Warwick
dc.contributor Dept Zool
dc.contributor University Of Cambridge
dc.contributor Sch Environm Sci
dc.contributor Coral Reef Res
dc.contributor Zool Soc London
dc.contributor Australian Institute Of Marine Science
dc.contributor Ctr Excellence Coral Reef Studies
dc.contributor University Of Queensland
dc.contributor Zoological Society Of London
dc.contributor Dept Biol Sci
dc.contributor Int Programme State Ocean
dc.contributor University Of East Anglia
dc.contributor Iucn Coral Specialist Grp
dc.contributor Univ Cambridge
dc.contributor Univ Queensland
dc.contributor Australian Institute Of Marine Science (aims) en ROGERS, A. D. VERON, J. E. N. HOEGH-GULDBERG, O. LENTON, T. M. LOUGH, J. M. OBURA, D. O. PEARCE-KELLY, P. SHEPPARD, C. R. C. SPALDING, M. STAFFORD-SMITH, M. G. 2013-02-28T06:40:54Z 2013-02-28T06:40:54Z 2017-03-21T00:46:23Z 2019-07-08T02:32:25Z 2013-02-28T06:40:54Z 2013-02-28T06:40:54Z 2017-03-21T00:46:23Z 2019-07-08T02:32:25Z 2009-10-01
dc.identifier 8207 en
dc.identifier.citation Veron JEN, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Lenton TM, Lough JM, Obura DO, P Pearce-Kelly, Sheppard CRC, Spalding M, Stafford-Smith MG and Rogers AD (2009) The coral reef crisis: the critical importance of <350ppm CO2. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 58: 1428-1437. en
dc.identifier.issn 0025-326X
dc.description Link to abstract/full text - en
dc.description.abstract Temperature-induced mass coral bleaching causing mortality on a wide geographic scale started when atmospheric CO2 levels exceeded similar to 320 ppm. When CO2 levels reached similar to 340 ppm, sporadic but highly destructive mass bleaching occurred in most reefs world-wide, often associated with El Nino events. Recovery was dependent on the vulnerability of individual reef areas and on the reefs previous history and resilience. At today's level of similar to 387 ppm, allowing a lag-time of 10 years for sea temperatures to respond, most reefs world-wide are committed to an irreversible decline. Mass bleaching will in future become annual, departing from the 4 to 7 years return-time of El Nino events. Bleaching will be exacerbated by the effects of degraded water-quality and increased severe weather events. in addition, the progressive onset of ocean acidification will cause reduction of coral growth and retardation of the growth of high magnesium calcite-secreting coralline algae. If CO2 levels are allowed to reach 450 ppm (due to occur by 2030-2040 at the current rates), reefs will be in rapid and terminal decline world-wide from multiple synergies arising from mass bleaching, ocean acidification, and other environmental impacts. Damage to shallow reef communities will become extensive with consequent reduction of biodiversity followed by extinctions. Reefs will cease to be large-scale nursery grounds for fish and will cease to have most of their current value to humanity. There will be knock-on effects to ecosystems associated with reefs, and to other pelagic and benthic ecosystems. Should CO2 levels reach 600 ppm reefs will be eroding geological structures with populations of surviving biota restricted to refuges. Domino effects will follow, affecting many other marine ecosystems. This is likely to have been the path of great mass extinctions of the past, adding to the case that anthropogenic CO2 emissions could trigger the Earth's sixth mass extinction. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
dc.description.uri en
dc.language English
dc.language en en
dc.relation.ispartof Marine Pollution Bulletin - pages: 58: 1428-1437 en
dc.relation.ispartof Null
dc.subject Great-barrier-reef
dc.subject Mass Bleaching
dc.subject Global Warming
dc.subject Corals
dc.subject Climate-change
dc.subject El-nino
dc.subject Anthropogenic Co2
dc.subject Environmental Sciences & Ecology
dc.subject Calcium-carbonate Saturation
dc.subject Environmental Sciences
dc.subject Bleaching Events
dc.subject Marine & Freshwater Biology
dc.subject Reduced Calcification
dc.subject Climate Change
dc.subject Mass Extinctions
dc.subject Hawaiian-islands
dc.subject Ocean Acidification
dc.subject Indian-ocean
dc.subject Coral Reefs
dc.title The coral reef crisis: The critical importance of < 350 ppm CO2
dc.type journal article en
dc.identifier.doi 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2009.09.009
dc.identifier.wos WOS:000271370800013

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